Journal Articles

Foundational Research

30 years of multilevel research.

Scientific Learning®, the company that created Fast ForWord and Reading Assistant is one of the only educational software companies whose neuroscience research has been and continues to be published in peer review journals. Our open door policy regarding access to our research reflects and defines our approach.

The following selection of foundational research publications provides a sampling of the science supporting the Scientific Learning® family of products.

 

Ahissar, M. (2001). Perceptual training: A tool for both modifying the brain and exploring it. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 98(21), 11842-3.

Ahissar, M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M.M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 6832-6837.

Alexander, D. W., & Frost, B. P. (1982). Decelerated synthesized speech as a means of shaping speed of auditory processing of children with delayed language. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 55(3, Pt 1), 783-792.

Aten, J., & Davis, J. (1968). Disturbances in the perception of auditory sequence in children with minimal cerebral dysfunction. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 11(2), 236-245.

Bao, S., Chan, V.T., Zhang, L. I., & Merzenich, M. M.(2003). Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S, 100(3), 1405-8.

Bao, S., Chang, E. F., Davis, J. D., Gobeske, K. T., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(34), 10765-75.

Bedi, G.C., Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Byma, G., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1995). Efficacy of temporal-based training for receptive language and auditory discrimination deficits in language-learning impaired children: A follow-up study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Supplement, April, p.55.

Boets, B., Vandermosten, M., Poelmans, H., Luts, H., Wouters, J., Ghesquiere, P. (2011) Preschool impairments in auditory processing and speech perception uniquely predict future reading problems. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32: 560-570.

Beitel, R.E., Schreiner, C. E., Cheung, S. W., Wang, X., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 100(19), 11070-5.

Benasich, A. A., & Tallal, P. (1996). Auditory temporal processing thresholds, habituation, and recognition memory over the 1st year. Infant Behavior & Development, 19(3), 339-357.

Benasich, A. A., & Tallal, P. (2002). Infant discrimination of rapid auditory cues predicts later language impairment. Behavior and Brain Research, 136(1), 31-49.

Benasich, A. A., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1993). Language, learning, and behavioral disturbances in childhood: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(3), 585-594.

Benton, A. L. (1964). Developmental aphasia (DA) and brain damage. Cortex, 1(1), 40-52.

Bishop, D. V. M., Bishop, S. J., Bright, P., James, C., Delaney, T., & Tallal, P. (1999). Different origin of auditory and phonological processing problems in children with language impairment: Evidence from a twin study. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 42(1), 155-168.

Blake, D. T., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Changes of AI receptive fields with sound density. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(6), 3409-20.

Blake, D. T., Strata, F., Churchland, A. K., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Neural correlates of instrumental learning in primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99(15), 10114-9.

Burns, M. (2003, March - April). Fast ForWord Products Open a Child's Window to Language. Autism Asperger's Digest. 2003.(Condensed version available here.)

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Chang, E. F., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science, 300(5618), 498-502.

De Martino, S., Espesser, R., Rey, V., & Habib, M. (2001). The "temporal processing deficit" hypothesis in dyslexia: New experimental evidence. Brain & Cognition, 46(1-2), 104-108.

Denenberg, V. H. (1999). A critique of Mody, Studdert-Kennedy, and Brady's "Speech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or phonological coding?". Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(5), 379-383.

Dronkers, N. F, Husted, D.A., Deutsch, G., Tayler, M.K., Saunders, G., & Merzenich, M.M. (1999). Lesion site as a predictor of improvement after "Fast ForWord" treatment in adult aphasic patients. Brain & Language, 69, 450-452.

Eisenson, J. (1969). Development aphasia (dyslogia): A postulation of a unitary concept of the disorder. Cortex, 4(2), 184-200.

Elliott, L. L., & Hammer, M. A. (1988). Longitudinal changes in auditory discrimination in normal children and children with language-learning problems. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 53(4), 467-474.

Fiez, J. A., Raichle, M. E., Balota, D. A., Tallal, P., & Petersen, S. E. (1996). PET activation of posterior temporal regions during auditory word presentation and verb generation. Cerebral Cortex, 6(1), 1-10.

Fiez, J. A., Raichle, M. E., Miezin, J. D. E., Petersen, S. E., Tallal, P., & Katz, W. F. (1995). PET studies of auditory and phonological processing: Effects of stimulus characteristics and task demands. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(3), 357-375.

Flax, J.F., Realpe-Bonilla, T., Hirsch, L., Brzustowicz, L.M., Bartlett, C.W., & Tallal, P. (2003). Specific language impairment in families: Evidence for co-occurrence with reading impairments. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 46, 530-543.

Friel-Patti, S., DesBarres, K., & Thibodeau, L. (2001). Case studies of children using Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 203-215.

Friel-Patti, S., Loeb, D. F., & Gillam, R. B. (2001). Looking ahead: An introduction to five exploratory studies of Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 195-202.

Frumkin, B., & Rapin, I. (1980). Perception of vowels and consonant-vowels of varying duration in language impaired children. Neuropsychologia, 18(4-sup-5), 443-454.

Gaab, N., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Deutsch, G.K., Tallal, P., & Temple, E. (2007). Neural correlates of rapid auditory processing are disrupted in children with developmental dyslexia and ameliorated with training: An fMRI study. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25, 295-310.

Garabedian, C. E., Jones, S. R., Merzenich, M. M., Dale, A., & Moore, C. I. (2003). Band-pass response properties of rat SI neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(3), 1379-91.

Gillam, R. B. (1999). Treatment for temporal processing deficits: Computer-assisted language intervention using Fast ForWord(R): Theoretical and empirical considerations for clinical decision-making. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 30(4), 363-370.

Gillam, R. B., Crofford, J. A., Gale, M. A., & Hoffman, L. M. (2001). Language change following computer-assisted language instruction with Fast ForWord or Laureate Learning Systems software. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 231-247.

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Gillam, R.B., Frome Loeb, D., Hoffman, L.M., Bohman, T., Champlin, C.A., & Thibodeau, L. (2008) The Efficacy of Fast ForWord Language Intervention in School-Age Children With Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 97-119.

Gillam, R. B., Loeb, D. F., & Friel-Patti, S. (2001). Looking back: A summary of five exploratory studies on Fast ForWord. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 269-273.

Habib, M. (2000). The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: An overview and working hypothesis. Brain, 123(12), 2373-2399.

Habib, M., Espesser, R., Rey, V., Giraud, K., Bruas, P., & Gres, C. (1999). Training dyslexics with acoustically modified speech: Evidence of improved phonological performance. Brain & Cognition, 40(1), 143-146.

Habib, M., Rey, V., Daffaure, V., Camps, R., Espesser, R., Joly-Pottuz, B., & Demonet, J.-F. (2002). Phonological training in children with dyslexia using temporally modified speech: A three-step pilot investigation. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 37(3), 289-308.

Hari, R., & Kiesila, P. (1996). Deficit of temporal auditory processing in dyslexic adults. Neuroscience Letters, 205(2), 138-40.

Heim, S., Keil, A., Choudhury, N., Thomas Friedman, J. & Benasich, A. (2013). Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: Changes in neural mass activity after training. Neuropschologia, 51, 990-1001.

Hickmott, P. W. & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Local circuit properties underlying cortical reorganization. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(3), 1288-301.

Hook, P. E., Macaruso, P., & Jones, S. (2001). Efficacy of Fast ForWord training on facilitating acquisition of reading skills by children with reading difficulties--a longitudinal study. Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 75-96.

Houde, J. F., Nagarajan, S. S., Sekihara, K., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Modulation of the auditory cortex during speech: An MEG study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1125-38.

Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., & Recanzone, G. (1990). Neocortical representational dynamics in adult primates: Implications for neuropsychology. Neuropsychologia, 28(6), 573-84.

Kilgard, M. P. & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99(5), 3205-9.

Kilgard, M. P., & Merzenich, M. M. (1998). Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity [see comments]. Science, 279(5357), 1714-8.

Kraus, N., McGee, T., Carrell, T. D., King, C., & et al. (1995). Central auditory system plasticity associated with speech discrimination training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(1), 25-32.

Krishnamurti, S., Forrester, J., Rutledge, C., & Holmes, G.W. (2013). A case study of the changes in the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response associated with auditory training in children with auditory processing disorders. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinoloaryngology, 77, 594-604.

Lakshminarayanan, K. & Tallal, P (2007). Generalization of non-linguistic auditory perceptual training to syllable discrimination. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25, 263-272.

Lincoln, A. J., Dickstein, P., Courchesne, E., Elmasian, R., & Tallal, P. (1992). Auditory processing abilities in non-retarded adolescents and young adults with developmental receptive language disorder and autism. Brain & Language, 43(4), 613-622.

Linden, J. F., Liu, R.C., Sahani, M., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(4), 2660-75.

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Liu, R.C., Miller, K. D., Merzenich, M. M., & Schreiner, C. E. (2003). Acoustic variability and distinguishability among mouse ultrasound vocalizations. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 114(6 Pt 1), 3412-22.

Loeb, D. F., Stoke, C., & Fey, M. E. (2001). Language changes associated with Fast ForWord-language: Evidence from case studies. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 216-230.

Lowe, A. D., & Campbell, R. A. (1965). Temporal discrimination in aphasoid and normal children. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 8(3), 313-4.

Marler, J. A., Champlin, C. A., & Gillam, R. B. (2001). Backward and simultaneous masking measured in children with language-learning impairments who received intervention with Fast ForWord or Laureate Learning Systems software. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 258-268.

Masland, M. W., & Case, L. W. (1968). Limitation of auditory memory as a factor in delayed language development. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 3(2), 139-142.

McCandliss, B.D., Fiez, J.A., Protopapas, A, Conway, M, & McClelland, J.L. (2002). Success and failure in teaching the [r]-[l] contrast to Japanese adults: Tests of a Hebbian model of plasticity and stabilization in spoken language perception. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 2(2), 89-108.

McKenzie, A. L., Nagarajan, S. S., Roberts, T. P., Merzenich, M. M., & Byl, N. N. (2003). Somatosensory representation of the digits and clinical performance in patients with focal hand dystonia. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(10), 737-49.

Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S. L., & Tallal, P. (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science, 271(5245), 77-81.

Merzenich, M. M., Recanzone, G.M., Jenkins, W. M., & Grajski, K. A . (1990). Adaptive mechanisms in cortical networks underlying cortical contributions to learning and nondeclarative memory. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 55, 873-887.

Merzenich, M. M., Schreiner, C., Jenkins, W., & Wang, X. (1993). Neural mechanisms underlying temporal integration, segmentation, and input sequence representation: Some implications for the origin of learning disabilities. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 682, 1-22.

Merzenich, M.M., Wright, B., Jenkins, W., Xerri, C., Byl, N., Miller, S., & Tallal, P. (1996). Cortical plasticity underlying perceptual, motor and cognitive skill development; Implications for neurorehabilitation. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantatative Biology, 61,1-8.

Miller, S. L., Delaney, T. V., & Tallal, P. (1995). Speech and other central auditory processes: Insights from cognitive neuroscience. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 5(2), 198-204.

Miller, S. L., Linn, N., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1999). Speech and language therapy (Reeducation Orthophonique). Federation Nationale des Orthophonistes, Special Issue: La conscience phonologique, 197, 159-182.

Miller, S. L., Linn, N., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. (1999). Acoustically modified speech and language training: A relationship between auditory word discrimination training and measures of language outcomes. Reeducation Orthophonique, 197, 159-182.

Miller, S., & Tallal, P. (1996). Acoustically modified speech training studies: Implications for dyslexia? Perspectives: Proceeding of the Orton Dyslexia Society, 22, 8-9.

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Miller, S., Merzenich, M.M., Saunders, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., Tallal, P. (1997). Improvements in language abilities with training of children with both attentional and language impairments. Soc Neurosci Abstr, 23, 490.

Mody, M., Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Brady, S. (1997). Speech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or phonological coding? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 64(2), 199-231.

Monsees, E. K. (1961). Aphasia in children. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 26, 83-86.

Nagarajan, S. S., Cheung, S. W., Bedenbaugh, P., Beitel, R. E., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Representation of spectral and temporal envelope of twitter vocalizations in common marmoset primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87(4), 1723-37.

Nagarajan, S. S., Wang, X., Merzenich, M. M., Schreiner, C. E., Johnston, P., Jenkins, W., Miller, S., & Tallal, P. (1998). Speech modifications algorithms used for training language-learning impaired children. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 6(3), 257-268.

Nagarajan, S., Mahncke, H., Salz, T., Tallal, P., Roberts, T., & Merzenich, M. M. (1999). Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 6483-6488.

Neville, H. J., Coffey, S. A., Holcomb, P. J., & Tallal, P. (1993). The neurobiology of sensory and language processing in language-impaired children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(2), 235-253.

Poldrack, R. A., Temple, E., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: Evidence from fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13(5), 687-97.

Recanzone, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., Hradek, G. T., & Merzenich, M. M. (1992). Progressive improvement in discriminative abilities in adult owl monkeys performing a tactile frequency discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67(5), 1015-30.

Recanzone, G. H., M. M. Merzenich, et al. (1992). Changes in the distributed temporal response properties of SI cortical neurons reflect improvements in performance on a temporally based tactile discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 47(5), 1071-1090.

Recanzone, G. H., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (1993). Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 13(1), 87-103.

Reed, M. A. (1989). Speech perception and the discrimination of brief auditory cues in reading disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48(2), 270-292.

Rey, V., De Martino, S., Espesser, R., & Habib, M. (2002). Temporal processing and phonological impairment in dyslexia: Effect of phoneme lengthening on order judgment of two consonants. Brain & Language, 80(3), 576-591.

Rissman, M., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1990). School placement outcomes of young language impaired children. Journal of Special Language Pathology and Audiology, 14(2), 49-58.

Rogowsky, B.A., Papamichalis, P. Villa, L., Heim, S., & Tallal, P. (2013). Neuroplasticity-based cognitive and linguistic skills training improves reading and writing skills in college students. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(137)1 – 11.

Rubenstein, J. L., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Model of autism: Increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behavior, 2(5), 255-67.

Russo, N.M., Hornickel, H., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., Kraus, N. (2010) Biological changes in auditory function following training in children with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral and Brain Functions 6(60), 1-8.

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Schopmeyer, B., Mellon, N., Dobaj, H., Grant, G., & Niparko, J. K. (2000). Use of Fast ForWord to enhance language development in children with cochlear implants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl, 185, 95-8.

Schwartz, J., & Tallal, P. (1980). Rate of acoustic change may underlie hemispheric specialization for speech perception. Science, 207(4437), 1380-1381.

Stark, J. (1967). A comparison of the performance of aphasic children on three sequencing tests. Journal of Communication Disorders, 1(1), 31-34.

Stark, R. E., & Tallal, P. (1979). Analysis of stop consonant production errors in developmentally dysphasic children. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 66(6), 1703-12.

Stark, R. E., & Tallal, P. (1981). Selection of children with specific language deficits. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 46(2), 114-122.periodical

Stevens, C., Fanning, J., Coch, D., Sanders, L., & H Neville (2008). Neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention are enhanced by computerized training: Electrophysiological evidence from language-impaired and typically developing children. Brain Research, 1205, 55-69.

Studdert-Kennedy, M., Mody, M., & Brady, S. (2000). Speech perception deficits in poor readers: A reply to Denenberg's critique. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 317-321.

Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., McClean, M., Hansen, P. C., Rees, A., Green, G. G. R., & Stein, J. F. (1999). Can sensitivity to auditory frequency modulation predict children's phonological and reading skills? Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 10(10), 2045-2050.

Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., McLean, M. F., Hansen, P. C., Rees, A., Green, G. G., & Stein, J. F. (2000). Dynamic sensory sensitivity and children's word decoding skills. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 97(6), 2952-7.

Tallal, P. & Miller, S.L. (2003). How the brain learns to read. Middle Matters, 12(1), 7.

Tallal, P. (1975). Perceptual and linguistic factors in the language impairment of developmental dysphasics: An experimental investigation with the Token Test. Cortex, 11(3), 196-205.

Tallal, P. (1976). Rapid auditory processing in normal and disordered language development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 19(3), 561-571

Tallal, P. (1980). Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and reading disabilities in children. Brain and Language, 9(2), 182-198.

Tallal, P. (1980). Language and reading: Some perceptual prerequisites. Bulletin of the Orton Society, 30, 170-178.

Tallal, P. (1980). Language disabilities in children: A perceptual or linguistic deficit? Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 5(2), 127-140.

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Tallal, P. (2000). The science of literacy: From the laboratory to the classroom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 97(6), 2402-4.

Tallal, P. (2003). Language learning disabilities: Integrating research approaches. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(6), 206-211.

Tallal, P., & Benasich, A. A. (2002). Developmental language learning impairments. Developmental Psychopathology, 14(3), 559-79.

Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1973). Defects of non-verbal auditory perception in children with developmental aphasia. Nature, 241(5390), 468-9.

Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1973). Developmental aphasia: Impaired rate of non-verbal processing as a function of sensory modality. Neuropsychologia, 11(4), 389-398.

Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1974). Developmental aphasia: Rate of auditory processing and selective impairment of consonant perception. Neuropsychologia, 12, 83-93.

Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1975). Developmental aphasia: The perception of brief vowels and extended stop consonants. Neuropsychologia, 13, 69-74.

Tallal, P., & Stark, R. E. (1981). Speech acoustic-cue discrimination abilities of normally developing and language-impaired children. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 69, 568-574.

Tallal, P., Dukette, D., & Curtiss, S. (1989). Behavioral/emotional profiles of preschool language-impaired children. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 51-67.

Tallal, P., M. Merzenich, et al. (1998). Language learning impairment: Integrating research and remediation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39(3), 197-9.

Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., Miller, S., & Jenkins, W. (1998). Language learning impairments: Integrating basic science, technology, and remediation. Experimental Brain Research, 123(1-2), 210-219.

Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S.S., Schreiner, C., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. (1996). Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science, 271, 81-84.

Tallal, P., Miller, S., & Fitch, R. H. (1993). Neurobiological basis of speech: A case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Ann NY Acad Sci, 682, 27-47.

Tallal, P., Miller, S., & Fitch, R. H. (1995). Neurobiological basis of speech: A case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Irish Journal of Psychology, 16(3), 194-219.

Tallal, P., Sainburg, R. L., & Jernigan, T. (1991). The neuropathology of developmental dysphasia: Behavioral, morphological, and physiological evidence for a pervasive temporal processing disorder. Reading & Writing, 3(3-4), 363-377.

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Tallal, P., Saunders, G. H., Miller, S., Jenkins, W. M., Protopapas, A., & Merzenich, M. M. (1997). Rapid training-driven improvement in language ability in autistic and PDD-NOS children. Soc Neurosci Abstr, 23, 490.

Tallal, P., Stark, R. E., Kallman, C., & Mellits, D. (1980). Developmental dysphasia: Relation between acoustic processing deficits and verbal processing. Neuropsychologia, 18(3), 273-284.

Tallal, P., Stark, R. E., Kallman, C., & Mellits, D. (1980). Perceptual constancy for phonemic categories: A developmental study with normal and language impaired children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1(1), 49-64.

Tallal, P., Stark, R., Kallman, C., & Mellits, D. (1981). A reexamination of some nonverbal perceptual abilities of language-impaired and normal children as a function of age and sensory modality. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 24(3), 351-357.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S.L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860-2865.

Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Salz, T., Tallal, P., Merzenich., M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). Distruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI. PNAS, 97(35), 13907-13912.

Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., Salidis, J., Deutsch, G. K., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Disrupted neural responses to phonological and orthographic processing in dyslexic children: An fMRI study. Neuroreport, 12(2), 299-307.

Thibodeau, L. M., & Sussman, H. M. (1979). Performance on a test of categorical perception of speech in normal and communication disordered children. Journal of Phonetics, 7(4), 375-391.

Thibodeau, L. M., Friel-Patti, S., & Britt, L. (2001). Psychoacoustic performance in children completing Fast ForWord training. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), 248-257.

Turner, S., & Pearson, D. W. (1999). Fast ForWord language intervention programs: Four case studies. Tejas -- Texas Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology, 13(Spring/Summer).

Veale, T. K. (1999). Targeting temporal processing deficits through Fast ForWord(R): Language therapy with a new twist. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 30(4), 353-362.

Wang, X., Merzenich, M.M., Sameshima, K., & Jenkins, W.M. (1995). Remodeling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature, 378, 71-75.

Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (1987). Speech perception in severely disabled and average reading children. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 41(1), 48-61.

Witton, C., Stein, J. F., Stoodley, C. J., Rosner, B. S., & Talcott, J. B. (2002). Separate influences of acoustic AM and FM sensitivity on the phonological decoding skills of impaired and normal readers. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(6), 866-874.

Wright, B. A., Buonomano, D. V., Mahncke, H. W., & Merzenich, M. M. (1997). Learning and generalization of auditory temporal-interval discrimination in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(10), 3956-63.

Wright, B.A., Lombardino, L.J., King, W.M., Puranik, C.S., Leonard, C.M., & Merzenich, M.M. (1997). Deficits in auditory temporal and spectral resolution in language-impaired children. Nature, 387(6629), 176-178.

Zhang, L. I., Tan, A. Y., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex. Nature, 424(6945), 201-5.

Zhang, L. I., Bao, S., & Merzenich, M. M. (2002). Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99(4), 2309-14.

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